Animal husbandry is strongly influenced by weather and climate. Climate change/variability imposes multiple stresses in animals and thus vital to understand the impact of environmental stress on livestock production and reproduction. Among the environmental variables affecting livestock, heat stress seems to be one of the more intriguing factors making difficult animal reproduction and production. Information and knowledge on animal responses to the environment continues to be in process, managing livestock to reduce the impact of adverse weather and climate remains a challenge. Responding to the challenges of global warming necessitate a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of livestock within the farming system. The key thematic issues on environment stress and livestock production includes: early warning system, multiple stress research, exploitation of genetic potential of native breeds, suitable breeding programme and nutritional intervention research. Livestock farmers should have key roles in determining what adaptation and mitigation strategies they support if these have to sustain livestock production in changing climate. The integration of new technologies into the research and technology transfer systems potentially offers many opportunities to further the development of climate change adaptation strategies. This publication is therefore a multi-authored attempt to present the scientific fraternity high quality resource material in the field of climate change and livestock production. Attempts were made to discuss the adaptive mechanism that the animal exhibits to counteract the adverse effects of heat stress. In addition to the adaptive mechanisms, several management and feeding practices have also been established as tested methods for reduction of stress effects in livestock. It also highlights the challenges the livestock industry faces in maintaining the delicate balance between animal welfare and production. This book is a comprehensive resource for the researchers, teachers and students to understand stress, stress management and livestock productivity so as to sustain animal production in the Country under projected climate change scenario.